I’ve recently had a paper published in Mark Bishop and Andrew Martin’s excellent volume Contemporary Sensorimotor Theory. I thought I would post an extract in which I use sensorimotor theory to think through some of the issues raised by Donald Norman’s insightful critique Natural User Interfaces are not natural.
The type of interaction I have been describing [in the rest of the paper] has been marketed by Microsoft and others as “Natural User Inter- faces”: interfaces that are claimed to be so natural that they do not need to be learned. The logic behind this phrase is that, because body movements come naturally to us, a body movement interface will be natural. This idea has been criticised by many people, most notably by Norman in his article Natural User Interfaces are not natural in which he argues that bodily interfaces can suffer from many problems associated with traditional interfaces (such as the difficulty of remembering gesture) as well as new problems (the ephemerality of gestures and lack of visual feedback). So is there value in the intuition that bodily inter- faces are natural, and if so what is that value and why is it often not seen in existing interfaces?
I would argue that there is a fundamental difference in the nature of bodily interfaces and traditional interfaces. Jacob et al. propose that a variety of new forms of interaction, including bodily interaction, are successful because they leverage a different set of our pre-existing skills from traditions GUIs. While a graphical user interface leverages our skills in manipulating external visual and symbolic representations, bodily interfaces leverage leverage skills related to body and environmental awareness. The skills that enable us to move and act in the world. Similarly, Dourish proposes that we analyse interaction in terms of embodiment which he defines as: “the property of our engagement with the world that allows us to make it meaningful”. This leads him to define Embodied Interaction as “the creation, manipulation, and sharing of meaning through engaged interaction with artefacts”. While he applies this definition to both traditional and new forms of interaction, the nature of this engaged interaction is very different in bodily interfaces. Following Jacob we could say that, in a successful bodily interface, this engaged interaction can be the same form of engagement we have with our bodies and environment in our daily lives and we can therefore re-use our existing skills that enable us to engage with the world.
If we take a non-representational, sensorimotor view of perception and action these skills are very different from the skills of a traditional interface involving manipulation of representations. This view allows us to keep the intuition that bodily interfaces are different from graphical user interfaces and explain what is meant by natural in the phrase “natural user interface” (the so-called natural skills are non-representational sensorimotor skills), while also allowing us to be critical of the claims of bodily interfaces. Natural user interfaces, on this view, are only natural if they take account of the non-representational, sensorimo- tor nature of our body movement skills. Body movement interfaces which are just extensions of a symbolic, representational interface which are just a more physically tiring version of a GUI.
A good example of this is gestural interaction. A common implementation of this form of interface is to have a number of pre-defined gestures that can be mapped to actions in the interface. This is one of the types of interface that Norman criticises. When done badly there is a fairly arbitrary mapping between a symbolic gesture and a symbolic action. Users’ body movements are used as part of a representation manipulation task. There is nothing wrong with this per se but it does not live up to the hype of natural user interfaces and is not much different from a traditional GUI. In fact, as Norman notes, it can be worse, as users do not have a visual cue to remind them which gestures they should be performing. This makes it closer to a textual command line interface where users must remember obscure commands with no visual prompts. Gestural user interfaces do not have to be like this.
These problems can be avoided if we think of gestural interfaces as tapping sensorimotor skills, not representation manipulation skills. For example, the work of Bevilacqua et al. uses gesture to control music. In this work, ges- tures are tracked continuously rather than being simply recognised at the end of the gesture. This allows users to continuously control the production of sound throughout the time they are performing the gesture, rather than triggering the gesture at the end. This seemingly simple difference transforms the task from representation manipulation (producing a symbolic gesture and expecting a dis- crete response) to a tight sensorimotor loop in which the auditory feedback can influence movement which in turn controls the audio. A more familiar example of this form of continuous feedback is the touch screen “pinch to zoom” gesture developed for the iPhone. In this gesture an image resizes dynamically and continuously in response to the users’ fingers moving together and apart. This continuous feedback and interaction enables a sensorimotor loop that can leverage our real world movement skills.
A second feature of Bevilacqua et al.’s system is that is allows users to easily define their own gestures and the do so by acting out those gestures while listening to the music to be controlled. I will come back to this feature in more detail later, but for now we can note that it means that gestures are not limited to a set of pre-defined symbolic gestures. Users can define movements that feel natural to them for controlling a particular type of music. What does “natural” mean in this context? Again, it means that the user already has a learnt sensorimotor mapping between the music and a movement (for example a certain way of tapping the hands in response to a beat).
This is the full article:
Gillies, Marco and Kleinsmith, Andrea. 2014. Non-representational Interaction Design. In: Mark (J. M.) Bishop and Andrew Martin, eds. Contemporary Sensorimotor Theory. 15 Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, pp. 201-208. ISBN 978-3-319-05106-2